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Specifications
Structr.Specifications package provides .NET implementation of Specification pattern with set of simple operations with them.

Installation

Specifications package is available on NuGet.
dotnet add package Structr.Specifications

Usage

Main class of package - Specification<T> - should be inherited by your own classes in order to use its functionality and extensions.
Example of basic usage:
// Some model.
public class Book
{
public string Title { get; set; }
public string Author { get; set; }
public int Year { get; set; }
public int Price { get; set; }
}
// Specification matching only books written after some year.
public class BookYearIsGreaterThanSpec : Specification<Book>
{
public int Year { get; }
public BookYearIsGreaterThanSpec(int year)
=> Year = year;
// The only method to be overridden - ToExpression().
// It should return expression that gives needed condition.
public override Expression<Func<Book, bool>> ToExpression()
{
return x => x.Year > Year;
}
}
// Specification matching only books which have price less than some value.
public class BookPriceIsLessThanSpec : Specification<Book>
{
public int Price { get; }
public BookPriceIsLessThanSpec(int price)
=> Price = price;
public override Expression<Func<Book, bool>> ToExpression()
{
return x => x.Price < Price;
}
}
Use specifications to filter models collection:
// Books collection.
var books = new List<Book>
{
new Book { Title = "Don Quixote", Author = "Miguel de Cervantes", Year = 1605, Price = 16 },
new Book { Title = "The Brothers Karamazov", Author = "Fyodor Dostoevsky", Year = 1879, Price = 13 },
new Book { Title = "The Lord of the Rings", Author = "J.R.R. Tolkien", Year = 1954, Price = 32 },
new Book { Title = "One Hundred Years of Solitude", Author = "Gabriel Garcia Marquez", Year = 1967, Price = 21 },
};
// Create specification instances.
var newBookSpec = new BookYearIsGreaterThanSpec(1950);
var cheapBookSpec = new BookPriceIsLessThanSpec(25);
// Then filter books collection.
IEnumerable<Book> newBooks = books
.Where(x => newBookSpec.IsSatisfiedBy(x)); // Gives "The Lord of the Rings" and "One Hundred Years of Solitude".
IEnumerable<Book> cheapBooks = books
.Where(x => cheapBookSpec.IsSatisfiedBy(x)); // Gives "Don Quixote", "The Brothers Karamazov" and "One Hundred Years of Solitude".
// You also can combine two specifications.
// For example: Cheap and "new" books.
Specification<Book> cheapAndNewBooksSpec = cheapBookSpec.And(newBookSpec);
IEnumerable<Book> cheapAndNewBooks = books
.Where(x => cheapAndNewBooksSpec.IsSatisfiedBy(x)); // Gives only "One Hundred Years of Solitude".
// For example: Cheap and "old" books.
Specification<Book> cheapAndOldBooksSpec = cheapBookSpec.AndNot(newBookSpec);
IEnumerable<Book> cheapAndOldBooks = books
.Where(x => cheapAndOldBooksSpec.IsSatisfiedBy(x)); // Gives only "Don Quixote" and "The Brothers Karamazov".
The whole list of Specification<T> extensions is provided below:
Method name
Description
And<T>
Creates specification which will be satisfied only when both specifications will be satisfied by provided instance of type T.
Or<T>
Creates specification which will be satisfied when at least one two specifications will be satisfied by provided instance of type T.
Not<T>
Creates specification which will be satisfied when given specification won't be satisfied by provided instance of type T.
AndNot<T>
Creates specification which will be satisfied when first specification will AND second will not be satisfied by provided instance of T.
OrNot<T>
Creates specification which will be satisfied when first specification will OR second will not be satisfied by provided instance of T.
Additionally two predefined specifications are available:
Name
Description
AnySpecification<T>
Specification to which all objects of T will match.
NoneSpecification<T>
Specification to which none of objects of T will match.

Entity Framework

Structr.Specifications may be helpful with Entity Framework 6 or Entity Framework Core. Use ToExpression() method with Where() for filtering entities in DbContext:
// Create specification instances.
var newBookSpec = new BookYearIsGreaterThanSpec(1950);
var cheapBookSpec = new BookPriceIsLessThanSpec(25);
// Then filter books entities.
List<Book> newBooks = dbContext.Books
.Where(x => newBookSpec.ToExpression(x))
.ToList(); // Gives "The Lord of the Rings" and "One Hundred Years of Solitude".
List<Book> cheapBooks = books
.Where(x => cheapBookSpec.ToExpression(x))
.ToList(); // Gives "Don Quixote", "The Brothers Karamazov" and "One Hundred Years of Solitude".
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Entity Framework